An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law by Husayn Hamid Hassan
Hasan ibn Ali
October 10 marks a signal date in Islamic history. His death cemented deep and lasting division among Muslims that persist to this day. Before his death, Muhammad had made statements praising Ali that some members of the Muslim community interpreted as naming him as his successor. The Shiites of Kufa in Iraq threatened revolt and asked Hussein to join them. He left for the city but arrived after Sunni forces had reached the area and—unknown to Hussein—enforced allegiance. Expecting reinforcements, Hussein led his force of fewer than a hundred against an army of a few thousand. After the battle, their bodies were mutilated.
Prior to his death, the Umayyad ruler Mu'awiya appointed his son Yazid as his successor, contrary to the Hasan-Muawiya treaty. Husayn refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid, even though it meant sacrificing his life.
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After the assassination of his father and the abdication of his older brother, Hasan , Husayn recognized Muawiyah as caliph, although he refused to pledge allegiance to him., Muslims respect him as a grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Among Shia Muslims , Hasan is revered as the second Imam.
Ali encountered opposition and civil war during his reign. At about age 60 Ali suffered an assassination attempt while praying in the mosque of Kufa in Iraq — he died soon afterwards. He retired to a quiet life in Medina till he died, poisoned by his wife, many years later. He is regarded by all Muslims as a martyr. You must have faith to believe in the God of Abraham. No one comes to the Father except through me. He arose on the third day from that cross, Alive and is still alive today.