Basic Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by P.N. Ananthanarayanan
Air Conditioning and Refrigeration
In other words, refrigeration means artificial human-made cooling  . Heat is removed from a low-temperature reservoir and transferred to a high-temperature reservoir. The work of heat transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism , electricity , laser , or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators , industrial freezers , cryogenics , and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units.
Air conditioners use refrigeration to chill indoor air, taking advantage of a remarkable physical law: When a liquid converts to a gas in a process called phase conversion , it absorbs heat. Air conditioners exploit this feature of phase conversion by forcing special chemical compounds to evaporate and condense over and over again in a closed system of coils. The compounds involved are refrigerants that have properties enabling them to change at relatively low temperatures.
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For more than a century, industrial air conditioning has been used for drying, humidity control, and dust and smoke abatement. Its most familiar function is to provide a comfortable working environment, to increase the comfort and productivity of personnel in offices, commercial buildings, and industrial plants. Air conditioning is the process of treating and distributing air to control temperature, humidity, and air quality in selected areas. Direct water sprays also remove dust and odors. Other air cleaning systems may include mechanical separation, adhesion, screening, filtration, or static attraction, depending on the type of air contaminants encountered and the required air quality Figure Refrigeration is the process of lowering the temperature of a substance below that of its surroundings and includes production of chilled water for air conditioning or process applications. Chilled water for use in processes such as injection molding may be in the same temperature range as chilled water used for air conditioning.