French and Indian War: A History From Beginning to End by Hourly HistoryFrench and Indian War The French and Indian War is one of the most significant, yet least acknowledged and understood, periods of American history. Fought chiefly between the two imperial powers of England and France in the mid-18th century, the struggle would also draw in native Indian nations who sought to exert their own strength and sovereignty over the North American continent. Inside you will read about... ? Imperial Appetites ? Sparks Ignite ? Rumours of War ? Pitt Rising ? The Montcalm Before the Storm ? Fortresses Fall ? From the Plains of Abraham to Peace From the first shots fired in the Ohio Valley wilderness in 1754 until the Treaty of Paris signed in 1763, the French and Indian War became a conflict that encircled the globe, drawing in nation after nation and inciting battles from the Caribbean to the Philippines. This book tells the story of this mighty struggle and how its outcome ultimately laid the foundations for the modern world we inhabit today.
The French and Indian War ends
In , prior to the outbreak of hostilities, Great Britain controlled the 13 colonies up to the Appalachian Mountains, but beyond lay New France, a very large, sparsely settled colony that stretched from Louisiana through the Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes to Canada. The border between French and British possessions was not well defined, and one disputed territory was the upper Ohio River valley. The French had constructed a number of forts in this region in an attempt to strengthen their claim on the territory. British colonial forces, led by Lieutenant Colonel George Washington, attempted to expel the French in , but were outnumbered and defeated by the French. However, his adversaries in the Cabinet outmaneuvered him by making the plans public, thus alerting the French Government and escalating a distant frontier skirmish into a full-scale war. The war did not begin well for the British. The British Government sent General Edward Braddock to the colonies as commander in chief of British North American forces, but he alienated potential Indian allies and colonial leaders failed to cooperate with him.
What were the consequences of the Royal Proclamation of ? This led to changes in the American Indian trade policy that adversely affected the American Indians. Many of them united under Pontiac to fight the British as a result of these changes. Policy-makers in Great Britain were astonished at the number of American Indian victories. Without the threat of the French many British colonial settlers moved across the Allegheny Mountains.
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It determined control of the vast colonial territory of North America. The French and Indian War began over the specific issue of whether the upper Ohio River valley was a part of the British Empire , and therefore open for trade and settlement by Virginians and Pennsylvanians, or part of the French Empire. Behind this issue loomed an infinitely larger one, however: which national culture was to dominate the heart of North America. Settlers of English extraction were in a preponderance in the coveted area, but French exploration, trade, and alliances with Native Americans predominated. British territorial claims rested upon explorations of the North American continent by John Cabot in the latter part of the 15th century. In the early 17th century, an English royal charter granted land within certain limits between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to both the Virginia Company and the Plymouth Company. In the province of Carolina was created to the south of Virginia , with a sea-to-sea grant; the Carolina charter was amended two years later, and the expanded territory would come to form the colonies of North Carolina , South Carolina , and Georgia.
Round four of the global struggle between England and France began in Unlike the three previous conflicts, this war began in America. French and British soldiers butted heads with each other over control of the Ohio Valley. At stake were the lucrative fur trade and access to the all-important Mississippi River, the lifeline of the frontier to the west. A squadron of soldiers led by a brash, unknown, twenty-two year old George Washington attacked a French stronghold named Fort Duquesne.
Minor skirmishes break out. He rejects it. May Washington defeats French in a surprise attack the first battle and builds Fort Necessity. July Washington blamed for the loss of Fort Necessity, resigns. He will later return as a volunteer under British authority. July British Col.