The Communist Manifesto Quotes by Karl Marx
184.108.40.206 - Class Struggle - Karl Marx - Sociology optional - UPSC - Paper - 1 - Unit - 4
Marx inherited the ideas of class and class struggle from utopian socialism and the theories of Henri de Saint-Simon. Whereas sociological functionalists posited the existence in a society of some religion or a substitute for it Comte, incidentally, propounded a positivistic religion, somewhat in the spirit of the French Revolution , the Marxists implied the disappearance of religion in a classless society. The key division lay between the members of the middle class, who owned businesses or acquired professional education, and those of the working class, who depended on the sale of labour for a wage.
Volume 3 Expanded Contents Chapters 1. Introduction and Summary 2. Aggression and the Conflict Helix 3. Frustration, Deprivation, Aggression, and the Conflict Helix 4. Misperception, Cognitive Dissonance, Righteousness, and Conflict 6.
Of all the things a capitalist can buy to build their business, only labour power adds value; meaning the business can produce something worth more than the original cost of the components that went into the finished product. The time, thought and energy applied by workers in the production process — whose efforts are only partially compensated by the employer who keeps the output — is the ultimate source of profit or surplus value in a capitalist economy. Put simply, all profits come from the unpaid work of workers. And of course the drive for profit is the beating heart of capitalism. This revolutionary discovery by Karl Marx paved the way for a comprehensive explanation of the workings of the capitalist system — identifying exploitation, and therefore injustice, at its core. Workers are those who have none of the necessary premises, equipment, materials, or the money to acquire these things, that are needed to engage in production or exchange — to make a living on the market — and can trade only their ability to work labour power.
Last chapter reproduced here. Marxism is not a 'sociology'. It only appears to be so, because, from the point of view of every other particular section of the intellectual division of labour-philosophy, economics, history, history of ideas, etc. Political economy, for example, is 'negated' by Marxism, in the Hegelian sense. Marx's treatment of political economy takes to their limit the contradictory developments of classical political economy. To do this requires the explanation of political economy's concepts and their real content as the 'alienated' consciousness of the development of bourgeois society itself.
Class struggle , or class warfare or class conflict, is tension or antagonism in society. It is said to exist because different groups of people have different interests. Looking at society this way is a feature of Marxism and socialism. Social sciences group people with similar social features into classes. Most of these features are economic. According to Marxism , there are two main classes of people: The bouregoisie controls the capital and means of production , and the proletariat provide the labour.