Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures by AnonymousRead our customer guide
Regarded throughout the English-speaking world as the standard English translation of the Holy Scriptures, the JPS TANAKH has been acclaimed by scholars, rabbis, lay leaders, Jews, and Christians alike. The JPS TANAKH is an entirely original translation of the Holy Scriptures into contemporary English, based on the Masoretic (the traditional Hebrew) text. It is the culmination of three decades of collaboration by academic scholars and rabbis, representing the three largest branches of organized Judaism in the United States. Not since the third century b.c.e., when 72 elders of the tribes of Israel created the Greek translation of Scriptures known as the Septuagint has such a broad-based committee of Jewish scholars produced a major Bible translation.
In executing this monumental task, the translators made use of the entire range of biblical interpretation, ancient and modern, Jewish and non-Jewish. They drew upon the latest findings in linguistics and archaeology, as well as the work of early rabbinic and medieval commentators, grammarians, and philologians. The resulting text is a triumph of literary style and biblical scholarship, unsurpassed in accuracy and clarity.
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Torah Reading - Genesis Chapter 1
Hebrew Bible: Torah, Prophets and Writings
Well-intended academics thus offered Hebrew Bible as a neutral alternative. However, the new language confuses more than it clarifies by erasing distinctions between the Christian Old Testament and the Jewish Tanakh. It is understandable if Christians think the Old Testament and the Tanakh are one and the same thing, but a closer look reveals important distinctions. And some Orthodox communions only use the Greek translation of the Hebrew the Septuagint —which varies in word choices and length from the Masoretic Hebrew Text. The Christian Old Testament and the Jewish Tanakh are also distinct from each other in terms of punctuation, canonical order, and emphases.
These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew , except for some Biblical Aramaic passages in the books of Daniel and Ezra. The form of this text that is authoritative for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text MT and it consists of 24 books, while the translations divide essentially the same material into 39 books for the Protestant Bible. Modern scholars seeking to understand the history of the Hebrew Bible use a range of sources, in addition to the Masoretic Text. Many of these sources may be older than the Masoretic Text and often differ from it. The books of the Tanakh were passed on by each generation and, according to rabbinic tradition, were accompanied by an oral tradition, called the Oral Torah.
Perhaps our conception of the Bible as one book is a result of our having one-volume printed Bibles; in ancient times, individual books were published in smaller scrolls; the word Bible, however, comes from the Greek ta biblia , which is plural and means books. Even the individual books can include a variety of different genres of writing—narratives, poetry, legal texts, prophecies—which makes reading the Bible as a unified book that much more difficult. Collecting the books and deciding which ones were to be included as part of the Bible and which were not is called the process of canonization; canonization of the Hebrew Bible was concluded during the first century CE. We have fragments and significant portions of the Bible from before that time, but our earliest complete manuscripts date from the ninth century CE and later; remarkably, through hundreds of years of transmission, the received text, what we call the Masoretic text, differs only slightly from those earliest fragments. The Torah , or Five Books of Moses, retells the story of how the family of Abraham and Sarah became the people of Israel, and how they came back from exile in Egypt, under the leadership of Moses , to the border of the land of Israel, on the way stopping at Mount Sinai for the revelation of what are known as the Ten Commandments.
In reading your answer to the question about why Jews do not believe in Jesus you mention that the Jews, read the Tanakh. I thought they read the Torah. Is this another version of the Torah just like we have different versions of the Bible? The Tanakh is a Jewish name for the Old Testament. The term Old Testament is a Chrstian term which refers to the sacred books written before Jesus Christ. We believe that God has added new revelation or books after Jesus Christ and so we call them the New Testament.
Though the word "Bible" is commonly used by non-Jews -- as are the terms "Old Testament" and "New Testament" -- the appropriate term to use for the Hebrew scriptures "scripture" is a synonym used by both Jews and non-Jews is Tanakh. This word is derived from the Hebrew letters of its three components:. The last twelve are sometimes grouped together as " Trei Asar " ["Twelve"]. It should be noted that the breaking of Samuel Shmuel , Kings Melachim and Chronicles Divrei hayamim into two parts is strictly an artifact of the Christian printers who first issued the books. They were too big to be issued as single volumes. Because every one followed these de facto standards, the titles of Volume 1 and Volume 2 were attached to the names. The division of the Tanakh into chapters was also done by medieval Christians, and only later adopted by Jews.